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Ophthalmological diseases such as cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), presbyopia, dry eye disease (DED), ocular allergy and others can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Development of therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of the etiology, molecular and anatomical pathogenic mechanisms and natural history of the disease. Simulating human diseases in animal models is critical to understanding several ocular diseases and developing novel drugs, drug delivery strategies as well as ophthalmological diagnostic technologies.

Creative Bioarray specializes in preclinical ophthalmological studies to examine the efficacy of novel compounds and therapeutic modalities. Our models are well established and optimized to facilitate generation of reproducible datasets with meaningful endpoints.

Glaucoma (Ocular Hypertension)

Glaucoma is a degenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve atrophy. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for the onset and progression of the disease. Since elevated IOP is the only risk factor that can be modified, relevant models for glaucoma would comprise RGC and optic nerve damage triggered by ocular hypertension. Animal models of glaucoma have greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathology, and they have also facilitated the development of new pharmacological interventions.

Creative Bioarray has developed a series of approaches to reliably induce elevated IOP in rodents. These models provide the ability to examine both the onset and the pathological progression in a controlled, reproducible manner.

  • Laser photocoagulation of the perilimbal region
  • Microbead injections into the anterior chamber
  • Hyaluronic acid injection into the anterior chamber
  • Episcleral vein obstruction
  • Episcleral vein saline injection
  • Steroid-induced glaucoma model
  • Myoc mutation mouse model
  • Cyp1b1 mutation mouse model
  • Vav2/Vav3 knockout rat model


The occurrence of cataracts is often accompanied by cloud of the lens, which is used to fine focus the image within the eye. It usually develops over a period of time, leading to a gradual deterioration in eyesight involving increasingly blurred and cloudy, glare, which may eventually lead to blindness. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, accounting for about half of all forms of vision loss. Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is by surgery. However, as the aging population and the number of people affected by diabetes increases, the demand for surgery and the need for cost-effective alternative solutions are growing exponentially, leading to researchers to turn their attention to cataract animal models to investigate the mechanisms of cataract formation and to test the efficacy of therapies for their potential use in humans.

Creative Bioarray has a large number of cataract animal models for studying the pathogenesis of cataracts, or trying to reduce the incidence of cataract in humans with the long-term view.

  • Emory mouse
  • Ihara cataract rat (ICR)
  • Senescence accelerated mouse (SAM)
  • UVA-induced cataracts
  • Naphthalene cataracts
  • Selenite-induced cataracts
  • Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) induced cataracts
  • L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) induced cataracts
  • Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) knockout mouse
  • Lens GSH synthesis knockout (LEGSKO) mouse

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

AMD is a late-onset, progressive, neurodegenerative disease that has a devastating impact on the elderly. AMD appears to be either dry (atrophic) or wet (exudative). Dry AMD, or geographic atrophy (GA), which is characterized by loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and coverage of large areas of photoreceptors on the central retina, while wet or neovascular AMD is characterized by growth of new blood vessels into the retina. The establishment of AMD animal models is of great significance for studying the causative mechanisms and evaluating novel AMD treatment strategies suitable for translation to human clinical trials. An ideal model of AMD would recapitulate the histological and functional changes, and evolve in a rapid time course to allow more efficient research.

At Creative Bioarray, we have established a series of AMD models to help elucidate the roles of oxidative stress, inflammation, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism in the pathogenesis of AMD as well as aid in the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  • Laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV)
  • CFH transgenic mouse model
  • APOE isoform knockin Mice
  • Ccl2/ and Cx3cr1/ double knockout mouse model
  • Subretinal injection-induced CNV model (lipid hydroperoxide, polyethylene glycol and matrigel)

With extensive experience in visual research, our scientists can help you choose the right model and experimental design to achieve your research and development goals.

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