Pharmacodynamics (PD) refers to the action of a drug to the body, involving receptor binding, post-receptor effects, and chemical interactions. Pharmacokinetics (PK) determines the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action. Successful drug discovery relies on the selection of drug candidates with good in vivo PK properties, as well as appropriate preclinical efficacy and safety. In vivo PK profiling is often a bottleneck in the discovery process.
In order to prove effective, a drug delivered to the patient must reach the necessary concentration in the plasma and in relevant tissues (as measured by PK). This is necessary to effectively modulate the activity of the target protein (as measured by PD) in the body. Incorporating in vivo PK/PD efficacy studies at the early stages of drug development program can significantly accelerate the selection of the most promising compounds. The rationales for conducting in vivo PK/PD efficacy studies in preclinical models are to:
PK/PD analysis is typically performed at every stage of the drug development process. As development is becoming more complex, time consuming, and cost intensive, Creative bioarray is looking to make better use of PK/PD data to eliminate defective candidates from the outset and identify those most likely to achieve clinical success.
Mouse, Rat, Hamster, Guinea pig, Rabbit, Beagle dog, Mini-pig and Cynomolgus monkey.
Oral (PO), intravenous (IV), intraarterial (IA), intramuscular (IM), intraperitoneal (IP), intratracheal (IT), subcutaneous (SC), transdermal (TD), intranasal (IN), IV infusion, SC infusion, rectal, and topical administration.
Bile-duct cannulation (BDC), jugular cannulation (JVC), portal vein cannulation (PVC), carotid artery cannulation (CAC), mesenteric lymph duct cannulation, bile-duct ligation, and castration.
Whole blood, plasma, serum, bile, feces, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, bone marrow, lymph node, other fluids and tissues.
PK/PD analysis is a key aspect of drug development. Understanding the bioavailability, exposure, half-life, clearance, and metabolism of a drug may determine the success or failure in the clinic. Creative Bioarray offers in vivo PK/PD services by utilizing our extensive expertise and models to support drug discovery and preclinical development for small molecules, peptides, nucleosides/nucleotides and biologics. All in-life work of PK/PD studies are carried out in AAALAC-approved animal facilities and follow IACUC-approved protocols. Whatever your needs, we work with you to identify the most appropriate models and to provide the customized study designs.